Pipes - brick (1)
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Reference

Michael Cook

For an unusual view into Canada's sewer history, see The Vanishing Point, a website featuring numerous photos of underground structures taken by urban explorer Michael Cook. Of particular note for sewer history:

The Skin of a Lion shows the accomplished brick work of the Rosedale Creek combined sewer in Toronto.

Toronto Power Tailrace shows the Tailrace confluence in a 1906 construction photo and the same location today.

Burying the Garrison Creek includes a history of the Garrison Creek sewer system, one of the most significant networks of brick and partially brick sewers in Toronto. Note additional Garrison Creek links (currently in right menu), many of which include photo galleries.

Sewerhistory.org has also posted a number of Michael Cook's photographs with his permission. View them at Exploring Canada's Underground Infrastructure.

Another urban explorer, Andrew Emond, has photos about the Montreal and other sewer systems at Under Montreal. The site includes a large selection of historic photos from the City Archives of Montreal.

 

For
Reference

Vincent Duseigne

For a unique look at the sewers of Belgium, see Photos/Graphics-Belgium. These photos are drawn from Egouts de Bruxelles, a website featuring numerous photos of the sewers and drains of Brussels by photographer Vincent Duseigne. Additional sewer, drain, and aqueduct photos can be found at his underground exploration website.

The old Brussels sewer system was largely built in the last half of the 1800s and features brick sewers, often oval in shape.

For
Reference

For a series of photos showing large brick sewers in London, see Steve Duncan's images of the Fleet Steet River/sewer, the London Bridge sewer, and Westbourne River sewer.

For
Reference

See Sanitary Engineering by Baldwin Latham (1884) for a number of illustrations of brick sewers. Posted under Articles/Design - Before 1900

Brick intercepting sewer, Brighton, Sussex, England, 1874.

Source: "Sussex History - A Different View," http://www.sussexhistory.com/sewers.htm; accessed 25 September 2002.

Early typical cross-sections of sewers, 1894.

Source: Supplement to Engineering News and American Railway Journal, 8 February 1894.

Construction of "Kerrigan" Combined Sewer in Nashville, Tennessee. Built circa 1900, it started at 30 inches and ended at the regulator with a diameter of 18 feet.

Source: Vernon (Wes) Frye, PE; Special Projects Manager, Metro Water Services, Nashville, Tennessee.

Photos of the Lick Springs and the Wilson Springs Branches of a major in-service brick and stone combined sewer system in Nashville, TN. Overall, it is over 2.5 miles in length. The brick segments of the sewer range from 16 foot diameter down to 36 inch diameter at its terminal upstream end, which is located underneath the Vanderbilt University Football Stadium.

In the 1820s, cobblestone bridges (two – at the Market Street and Cherry Street crossings) were built across local creeks to facilitate people and horse/wagon traffic. The bridges included stone culverts and sewers to provide for creek and storm flows. In the 1870s, the involved reaches of creeks were filled in to provide additional space for new buildings and streets. As that was done, a brick sewer (ranging from 16 foot diameter, with brick walls 7 courses thick at the downstream end; to 3 foot diameter, with walls 3 courses thick, at the upstream terminal end, now positioned under the Vanderbilt University’s Football Stadium) was laid, incorporating the stone sewer segments through/under the two bridges, to handle the creek and storm water flows. At the beginning, the system was a storm sewer; later, it became a combined sewer and has remained that way since. The system is still in service and a vital component of Nashville’s overall sewerage system.

The original bridge structures (including the stone sewer segments through and beneath the bridges) and the associated brick sewer segments of the system are now under 35 feet of earth fill.

Design/construction note: As the brick sewer was constructed upstream, at each downward change in diameter, the thickness of the brick pipe wall was reduced by one course of brick. For example, the 16 foot diameter brick sewers walls are 7 courses thick and, at the upstream end of the system, the 36 inch brick sewer’s wall is 3 courses thick.

Source: Provided courtesy of Ronnie Russell, Assistant Manager of Systems Services for Metro Water Services, City of Nashville, Nashville, TN.

Section of Callowhill Street Sewer showing flume used for plastering invert on curves, circa 1900.

Source: George S. Webster and Samuel Tobias Wagner, "History of the Pennsylvania Avenue Subway, Philadelphia, and Sewer Construction Connected Therewith," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume XLIV (December 1900), p. 21.

General details for egg-shaped sewers and manholes with in the Pennsylvania Avenue subway project, circa 1900.

Source: George S. Webster and Samuel Tobias Wagner, "History of the Pennsylvania Avenue Subway, Philadelphia, and Sewer Construction Connected Therewith," Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume XLIV (December 1900), p. 27.

Graphic

Details showing designs of egg-shaped brick sewers, circa 1910.

J. T. Brown, W. H. Maxwell, editors, "Sewerage," The Encyclopaedia of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering (New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1910), p. 428.

Graphic

Design for circular brick sewer, and a similar design used in the Clyde Bank Intercepting Sewer, Glasgow, circa 1910.

J. T. Brown, W. H. Maxwell, editors, "Sewerage," The Encyclopaedia of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering (New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1910), p. 429.

Designs for several sewer cross-sections, circa 1914.

Source: Leonard Metcalf and Harrison P. Eddy, American Sewerage Practice, Vol. 1: Design of Sewers, 1st edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1914), p. 449.

Storm sewer for Franklin Street, Tucson, Arizona, 1915.

Source: Alfred D. Micotti, Proposed additions and extensions to the sewer system of the city of Tucson, Arizona, M.S. Thesis, University of Arizona, 1915. University of Arizona Library Special Collections Call no. E 9791 1915 1.

Storm sewer for Alameda Street, Tucson, Arizona, 1915.

Source: Alfred D. Micotti, Proposed additions and extensions to the sewer system of the city of Tucson, Arizona, M.S. Thesis, University of Arizona, 1915. University of Arizona Library Special Collections Call no. E 9791 1915 1.

Brick storm sewer for Meyer Street, Tucson, Arizona, 1915.

Source: Alfred D. Micotti, Proposed additions and extensions to the sewer system of the city of Tucson, Arizona, M.S. Thesis, University of Arizona, 1915. University of Arizona Library Special Collections Call no. E 9791 1915 1.

   


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