General    

Leonard Metcalf and Harrison P. Eddy, “Introduction: The Lessons Taught by Early Sewerage Works,” American Sewerage Practice, First Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1914), pp. 1-31.

Written in 1914, but covers  earlier design in England and the United States.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

1860s

George E. Waring, Jr., “Chapter XI: House Drainage and Town Sewerage in Their Relations to the Public Health,” Draining for Profit and Draining for Health (New York: Orange Judd & Co., 1867), pp. 222-239.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

1870s

George E. Waring, Jr., “Village Sanitary Work,” Scribner’s Monthly, Vol. XIV, No. 2 (June 1877), pp. 176-187. Courtesy of The Making of America Digital Collection, Cornell University Library.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

George E. Waring, Jr. “The Draining of a Village,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 59, Issue 349 (June 1879), pp. 132-135. Courtesy of The Making of America Digital Collection, Cornell University Library.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

1880s

C. G. Force, Jr., “Design and Construction Table for Egg-shaped Sewers,” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume IX (May 1880), pp. 202-205.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Edward S. Philbrick, American Sanitary Engineering (New York: The Sanitary Engineer, 1881), pp. 1-15, 53-89, 117-123.

Lecture I: “Introductory” (pp. 1-15)     PDF version (printer-friendly).

Lecture IV: “The Drainage of Towns” (pp. 53-66)          PDF version (printer-friendly).

Lecture V: “Details of Sewerage” (pp. 67-74)        PDF version (printer-friendly).

Lecture VI: “The Ventilation of Sewers” (pp. 75-81)           PDF version (printer-friendly).

Lecture VII: “The Ventilation and Cleaning of Sewers” (pp. 82-89)          PDF version (printer-friendly).

Lecture XI: “Apparatus Used for House Drainage” (pp. 117-123)         PDF version (printer-friendly).

Frederick S. Odell, “The Sewerage of Memphis with Discussions,” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume IX (February 1881), pp. 23-52 and Plate IV.

PDF version, (printer-friendly).

George E. Waring, Jr., “Sanitary Drainage,” The North American Review, Vol. 137, Issue 320 (July 1883), pp. 57-67. Courtesy of The Making of America Digital Collection, Cornell University Library.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Alfred F. Sears, C.E., “Report upon a System of Sewerage for the City of Portland, Oregon,” December, 1883.

PDF

Baldwin Latham, C.E., M. Inst. C.E., Sanitary Engineering, A Guide to the Construction of Works of Sewerage and House Drainage with Tables for Facilitating the Calculations of the Engineer (New York: Engineering News Publishing Company, 1884).

PDF of all chapters (17 MB)      PDF of map of Dantzic (Gdansk, Poland) (Plate I, 5 MB)      PDF of illustrations only (Plates II to XIX, 4 MB)

Samuel M. Gray, Proposed Plan for a Sewerage System, and for the Disposal of the Sewage of the City of Providence (Providence: Providence Press Company, Printers to the City, 1884), Appendix A, pp. 3-116 and Plates I – XVI and XXIII.

Table of Contents PDF version (printer-friendly).

Eliot C. Clarke, Main Drainage Works of the City of Boston, 2nd edition (Boston: Rockwell and Churchill, City Printers, 1885), pp. 7-21, 31-52, Plates I-IX.

Chapter I: “Early History of Sewerage at Boston” (pp. 7-11, Plate I)    PDF version (printer-friendly).

Chapter II: “Character and Defects of the Old Sewerage System” (pp. 12-15, Plate II)       PDF version (printer-friendly).

Chapter III: “Movements for Reform — Commission of 1875” (pp. 16-21, Plates III, V)       PDF version (printer-friendly).

Chapter V: “Main Sewer” (pp. 31-36, Plate VI)      PDF version (printer-friendly).

Chapter VI: “Intercepting Sewers” (pp. 37-52, Plates VII, VIII, IX)       PDF version (printer-friendly).

Cyrenus Wheeler, Jr. (Mayor of Auburn, New York), “Sewers: Ancient and Modern; with an Appendix,” a paper read before the Cayuga County Historical Society on December 14, 1886. From the Collections of the Cayuga County Historical Society, 5 (1887), pp. 3-41, plates 1, 3, 7, 10, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

“The Shone Hydro-Pneumatic System of Sewerage,” The Manufacturer and Builder, Volume 19, Issue 5 (May 1887), pp. 104-105. Courtesy of The Making of America Digital Collection, Cornell University Library.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

“The Separate Sewer System,” The Manufacturer and Builder, Volume 21, Issue 9 (Sept. 1889), p. 210. Courtesy of The Making of America Digital Collection, Cornell University Library.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

1890s

Urban H. Broughton, “The Shone Hydro-Pneumatic System of Sewerage,” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume XXVII (December 1892), pp. 659-674.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

G. H. Benzenberg, “The Sewerage System of Milwaukee and the Milwaukee River Flushing Works,” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume XXX (December 1893), pp. 367-385 and plates I-III. Used with permission of ASCE and EWRI.

PDF version – Pages 367-385.
PDF version – Plates I-III.

G. H. Benzenberg, F. P. Stearns, D. J. Whittemore, “The Sewerage System of Milwaukee — Discussion on Paper No. 651,” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Volume XXX (December 1893), pp. 709-711. Used with permission of ASCE and EWRI.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

“The Sewers and Sewage Farms of Berlin,” Engineering News and American Railway Journal, Volume XXXVI, No. 9 (27 Aug. 1896), pp. 139-141.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Cady Staley and Geo. S. Pierson, The Separate System of Sewerage, Its Theory and Construction, Third Edition (New York: D. Van Nostrand, Co., 1899), pp. 17-45, 94-137, 200-239, and insert.

Chapter I: “Introduction” (pp. 17-38)     PDF version (printer-friendly).

Chapter II: “Water Carriage Systems” (pp. 39-45)     PDF version (printer-friendly).

Chapter VI: “Laws of Flow in Sewers” (pp. 94-129 and insert)    PDF version (printer-friendly).     PDF of insert

Chapter VII: “Material and Accessories” (pp. 130-137)    PDF version (printer-friendly).

Chapter X: “Flushing and Ventilation” (pp. 200-239) PDF version (printer-friendly).

U.S. Patents

Patent for improvement in sewerage, 1872. Patented by W. S. West on June 4, 1872. U.S. Patent No. 127,533.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for sewerage design, 1879. Patented by J. W. Crane on November 18, 1879. U.S. Patent No. 221,669.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for sewerage design – “Sewering and Draining Cities,” 1881. Patented by George E. Waring, Jr., on January 18, 1881. U.S. Patent No. 236,740.

George E. Waring, Jr., is considered one of the founders of public works design. See Tracking Down the Roots for more information.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for sewerage design – “Sewering and Draining Towns,” 1883. Patented by George E. Waring, Jr., on June 5, 1883. U.S. Patent No. 278,839.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for apparatus for removing sewage, 1880. Patented by I. Shone on December 28, 1886. U.S. Patent No. 235,910.

See also the Comprehensive Sewer Systems Design section for more information on I. Shone.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for sewer design, 1882. Patented by J. Comstock and T. E. Jefferson on July 11,1882. U.S. Patent No. 261,080.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for sewer design, 1888. Patented by W. A. Pitt on May 1, 1888. U.S. Patent No. 382,188.

The intent of W. A. Pitt’s patent was to provide one alternative way to better serve sewer customers in low, flatter areas; and in  doing so, save some of the limited vertical fall available (for a gravity system) and reduce potential odors (via the use of compressed air and solids separation).  Ultimately, the sewage is delivered to an area gravity collector sewer.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for sewer design, 1888. Patented by A. Le Marquand on February 7, 1888. U.S. Patent No. 377,681.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for flushing system, 1889. Patented by H. W. McDonald and T. W. Shunk on June 18, 1889. U.S. Patent No. 405,587.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for pneumatic sewerage system, 1892. Patented by C. T. Liernur on September 13, 1892. U.S. Patent No. 482,439.

See also the Comprehensive Sewer Systems Design section for more information on C. T. Liernur.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Patent for flushing system, 1899. Patented by H. C. Davis on May 2, 1899. U.S. Patent No. 624,188.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office at http://www.uspto.gov. Thanks to Tom Bates for finding and contributing this patent.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Modern articles about the period

Steven J. Burian, Stephan J. Nix, S. Rocky Durrans, Robert E. Pitt, Chi-Yuan Fan, and Richard Field, “The Historical Development of Wet Weather Flow Management” (Internet publication at http://www.rioned.org/history.htm).

 

Petri S. Juuti & Tapio S. Katko (eds.), Water, Time and European Cities – History Matters for the   Futures (Tampere University Press, Finland, 2005).  Thanks to Petri Juuti, Ph.D., University of Tampere, Finland.

PDF version.        Also found on University of Tampere website.

For Reference

Eran Ben-Joseph, LEVERHULME INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM 2004: The Resurgent City, Themed Session: The Serviced City, London School of Economics, 2004.