Harold Farnsworth Gray, “Sewerage in Ancient and Medieval Times,” Sewage Works Journal, Volume 12, No. 5 (Sept. 1940), pp. 939 – 946. Reprinted with permission from Sewage Works Journal. Copyright 1940 Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA.

See pages 942-943 for section on Rome.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

F. E. Turneaure and H. L. Russell, Public Water-Supplies, Requirements, Resources, and the Construction of Works (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1916) pp. 1-3, 5, 7-14.

See pages 2-8 for section on Rome.

PDF version (printer-friendly).

Marion Elizabeth Blake, Ancient Roman Construction in Italy from the Prehistoric Period to Augustus (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1947), pp. 159-161.

Construction of the Cloaca Maxima.

Jon C. Schladweiler, Historian, Arizona Water &  Pollution Control Association, “Cloacina: Goddess of the Sewers,” 2006.

PDF version.

FOR REFERENCE: See also Cloacina  and The Shrine of Cloacina