The Minoan civilization flourished on the Isle of Crete in the Mediterranean from 3000 to 100 BCE. Until Roman times, Minoan plumbing and drainage were the most developed in what was then the Western World. Complex open-topped drainage systems carried storm water and sewage. Crete may be the home of the first “flush” toilet — a ground-floor latrine with an overhead water reservoir.

See Tracking Down the Roots of Our Sanitary Sewers for more information.

W. J. Corrigan, “Sanitation under the Ancient Minoan Civilization,” Men and Books, (July 1932), pp. 77 – 78.

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Harold Farnsworth Gray, “Sewerage in Ancient and Medieval Times,” Sewage Works Journal, Volume 12, No. 5 (Sept. 1940), pp. 939 – 946. Reprinted with permission from Sewage Works Journal. Copyright 1940 Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA.

See pages 941-942 for section on the Minoan Civilization.

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Steven J. Burian, Stephan J. Nix, S. Rocky Durrans, Robert E. Pitt, Chi-Yuan Fan, and Richard Field, “The Historical Development of Wet Weather Flow Management” (Internet publication).

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James L. Foil, Joel A. Cerwick, James E. White, “Collection Systems Past and Present,” Operations Forum Magazine, Volume 10, Number 12 (December 1993). Used with permission.

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